Rhetoric

[UNDER CONSTRUCTION – This is very much work in progress.]

     Introduction

My interest here is in investigating rhetorical terms, especially those of antiquity, for the light that they shed on questions within literary theory, the understanding of persuasion, and wider issues of linguistics and cognition.

From school or college, many will remember such terms as “metaphor” and “personification”. Some may recall “metonymy”. These are indeed figures of major importance, but what may not be realized is that there are hundreds of such rhetorical terms, figures or devices. It is these which I intend to list, explore and classify.

What are rhetorical terms? To simplify greatly, they denote any use of a word, phrase or construction  that departs from “plain”, “normal” or “straightforward” language use which occurs in an identifiable way to achieve a persuasive, literary or poetic effect.

A distinction is thus made between literal (the “plain” and “normal” mentioned) and figurative language. However, such distinctions can be and have been contested on theoretical grounds.

The departure from normal use often occurs either through deviation or distortion, or through parallelism or patterning beyond “normal” expectations. The terms have historically often been divided into two groups –

–        trope             use of a word, phrase or image in a way not intended in its usual use

–        scheme         change in the standard word order or pattern

Through time, there has been some terminological confusion and contradiction regarding the high-level generic categories, particularly ”figure of speech” and “figure of thought”. In normal usage, metaphor, metonymy, etc. are often referred to as figures of speech, but many theorists identify the schemes more closely with figures of speech, and would consider metaphor, etc. as tropes, and as such, figures of thought.

The methodology for inclusion on the database is loose and inclusive, rather than strict and exclusive – at the core we have devices of rhetoric, such things as are often termed figures of speech, figures of thought, schemes or tropes. I have been particularly keen to include terms from the Ancient Greek, the Roman, Latin and Latinizations of the Greek, and those of the various Renaissance cultures (particularly Elizabethan England). There have been attempts by some theorists at Anglicization of some of the ancient terms, and many of these are included.

The database has a double focus – on the literary and poetic, and on persuasive and argumentative techniques and devices, though from some points of view, any such hard-and-fast division is not theoretically innocent.  I have recently tried to include as many terms for argumentative fallacies or ploys as I can, again with a bias to terms of the ancient world.

As well as the core of figures, etc., some terms from the wider fields of poetics and linguistics are included, but the database is not intended to be a dictionary of these areas.

Though the methodology for inclusion is loose, I expect to improve its consistency, and expect that the developing classification systems will bring much rigour to bear on the raw material of the database. Taxonomic and classification issues are what I wish to address.

The charm of obscure, unfamiliar and forgotten terminology is one of the attractions of this enterprise, but as well as this I believe that an ongoing investigation of taxonomies, classifications and categorizations of the devices, figures, schemes and tropes of rhetoric can provide insights and structure within literary and rhetorical theory, and play a part in improving the rigour of such disciplines, which are often impeded by inadequate or vague terminology. More widely, awareness of the rich resources of rhetoric could enhance appreciation and criticism of discourses as seemingly disparate as poetic text and political speech.

 _________________________________________________________

I [David Ruaune] have a background in literature, poetry and poetics, and literary theory. My academic and professional background is in English, English Literature and Education, and my main interests are literary theory, especially the Russian Formalist, Structuralist and New Critical perspectives, philosophy, particularly philosophy of mind and cognition, and theories of creativity.

As an outgrowth of my interest in literary theory, I became fascinated with uncovering the wealth of insight within the classical terminology of rhetoric, and developed an interest in converging on the most rational classification system for the various devices. Initially this was done with pencil and paper, but I later compiled the data into a database. This page is part of that ongoing project.

__________________________________________________________

     An Outline of the Rhetoric Database


Number Range               Category


1000                                     Syllables

1100                                             Deletion / Omission

1200                                             Addition

1300                                             Distortion / Rearrangement / Transposition

2000                                     Alteration of internality of word (?)

3000                                     Words

3100                                             Deletion / Omission

3200                                             Addition

3300                                             Distortion / Rearrangement / Transposition

3400                                             Parenthesis

3500                                             Zeugmas

4000                                      Repetition

4100                                              Rhythm

4200                                              Rhyme

4300                                              Words, Phrases

5000                                      Parallelism and Balance

6000                                      Poetic Licence

6100                                               Deletion

6200                                               Addition – Superfluity 

6300                                               Distortion – Malapropism and Ungrammaticality

6500                                               Poeticisms, Euphony, etc

6800                                               Obscurity, Pomposity

6900                                               Neologism

7000

7100                                                Description

7200                                                ContiguityMetonymy

7300                                                Similarity / Dissimilarity – Metaphor

7400                                                Contraries / Irony

7500                                                Language / Puns        

8000

8100                                                Definition

8200                                                Division

8300                                                Arrangement / Structure of Argument

8310                                                Ordering

8320                                                Beginning

8330                                                Amplification / Climax

8350                                                Digression

8390                                                Ending

8400                                                Logic

8500                                                Rhetorical Argument

8600                                                FallaciesFormal               

8700                                                 Fallacies – Informal

8700                                                          Fallacies of Presumption

8710                                                           Generalisation

8730                                                           Begging the Question (Petitio principii)

8740                                                           False Analogy   

8750                                                           Complex Question / Ignorance / Ignoratio                                                                                                                                                   Elenchi

8760                                                           False Cause / Gambler’s Fallacy

8780                                                           Fallacies of Ambiguity

8800                                                          Fallacies of Relevance / Emotional Appeals

8840                                                           Argumentum ad Hominem

8850                                                           Loaded Language / Black-and-White Fallacy

8870                                                           Etc

9000                                      Testimony

9000                                                Example

9500                                                Emotional

 

[9700  Miscellaneous,    9750  Undefined,     9800  Duplicates,     10000   Not yet classified]

__________________________________________________________

          An Extract from the Rhetoric Database

Number Figure Description
1000 metaplasm moving letters or syllables from natural place generic term
1101 synaeresis shortening two syllables to one
1102 elision contraction of word or omission of final unstressed syllable in line of verse
1103 ecthlipsis the omission or elision of letters or syllables (often the consonant “m” and the vowel that precedes it) for the sake of poetical meter. A kind of metaplasm specific to Latin.
1104 systole shortening a naturally long vowel or syllable
1105 crasis contraction into one sound
1110 aphaeresis subtract syllable from beginning
1111 syncope subtract syllable from middle deletion of a letter in middle of a word
1112 apocope subtract syllable from end
1113 abissio the equivalent latin term for apocope
1121 syzygy last letter of one word next letter of following
1122 synaloepha omitting one of two vowels which occur together at the end of one word and the beginning of another. A contraction of neighboring syllables. A kind of metaplasm.
1123 synalepha eliding first of two adjacent vowels
1214 prosthesis add syllable to beginning
1215 epenthesis add syllable to middle
1216 proparalepsis add syllable to end
1217 paragoge the addition of a letter or syllable to the end of a word. A kind of metaplasm.
1218 diastole lengthening a syllable or vowel usually short
1300 metathesis transposition or interchange in the position of letters (in a word), syllables or sounds. like spoonerism but historical or transposition of words in a sentence
1301 Spoonerism the interchange of the initial letters of two words, usually as a slip of the tongue.
1330 antisthecon change of sound
1351 acrostic when the first letters of successive lines are arranged either in alphabetical order (= abecedarian) or in such a way as to spell a word
2001 tmesis separate elements of a compound word
2002 diacope separation of elements of compound word by another word or words
2005 agnominatio repetition of a word with change in letter or sound
3022 articulus roughly equivalent to “phrase” in English, except that the emphasis is on joining several phrases (or words) successively without any conjunctions (in which case articulus is simply synonymous with the Greek term asyndeton). See also brachylogia.
3110 anacoluthon part of sentence or message incomplete
3111 ellipsis (ellipse) (eclipsis) words left out of sentence, easily inferred
3112 brachylogia omission of conjunctions between words or phrases
3113 scesis onomaton omission of the verb
3114 anapodoton omission of clause from sentence
3115 asyndeton omission of conjunctions between related clauses
3116 acervatio Latin term Quintilian employs for both asyndeton (“acervatio dissoluta” a loose heap) and polysyndeton (“acervatio iuncta “a conjoined heap).
3221 polysyndeton deliberate use of many conjunctions. Leads to slowing of rhythm.
3300 hyperbaton transposition of words or clauses from their natural order. Within this broad category are included i) anastrophe, ii) hysteron proteron; iii) chiasmus; iv) tmesis. (A Figure of Syntax).
3301 metathesis transposition of words in a sentence
3302 inversion reversing normal word order
3303 anastrophe reversal of normal word order unusual arrangement of words or clauses within a sentence
3304 synchysis The confused arrangement of words in a sentence. Hyperbaton or anastrophe taken to an obscuring extreme, either accidentally or purposefully.
3305 synchisis word order of sentence confused
3306 poiciologia awkward ungrammatical speech
3310 cacosyntheton placing adjectives after nouns
3312 hysteriologia reorganize prepositional phrase
3313 acaloutha substitution of reciprocal words, replacing one word for another. opposite of anacoloutha
3314 anacoloutha substituting one word with another whose meaning is very close to the original, but in a non-reciprocal fashion; that is, one could not use the first, original word as a substitute for the second. This is the opposite of acoloutha.
3380 hypallage reorganize word order to pervert sense
3381 transferred epithet hypallage : (Figure of Syntax). Also known as transferred epithet. The grammatical agreement of a word with another word which it does not logically qualify. A very common figure in poetry.
3383 chiasmus reversal of grammatical structures in successive phrases or clauses
3384 commutatio order of first clause reversed in second
3391 enallage case, number, gender, mood or tense transformed
3392 alleotheta substitution of one case, gender, mood, number, tense, or person for another. Synonymous with enallage.Peacham makes alleotheta the general category that includes antiptosis and all forms of enallage.
3393 antiptosis a type of enallage in which one grammatical case is substituted for another.Note: In English, this is apparent only with pronouns, unlike in inflected languages (Greek, Latin, German, etc.)
3394 anthypallage change of grammar case for emphasis
3395 anthimeria word as one part of speech exchanged for another
3396 hendiadys links up substantives or substantive and genitive by using the conjunction ‘and’
3397 hendyadis [alternative spelling of hendyadis?]
3398 hysteron proteron reverse time sequence
3415 parenthesis tangential thought Insertion of a verbal unit that interrupts normal syntactical flow.
3416 parathesis same as parenthesis?
3417 parembole a figure of interruption closely related to parenthesis. Parembole occurs when the interrupting matter has a connection to the sentence subject, whereas the interrupting material of parenthesis need have no such connection.
3540 zeugma the use of a word to modify or govern two or more words usually in such a manner that it applies to each in a different sense or makes sense with only one
3541 adnexio Latin term for zeugma.
3542 syllepsis like zeugma but utility word grammatically agrees with only its nearest object and is used in two different senses
3543 diazeugma one noun applied to more than one verb
3550 epizeugma placing the verb that holds together the entire sentence (made up of multiple parts that depend upon that verb) either at the very beginning or the very ending of that sentence.
3551 prozeugma verb in one clause understood to apply in succeeding clauses
3552 mesozeugma key verb placed in middle of a sentence linking preceding and subsequent sentences
3553 synzeugma kind of zeugma in which a verb joins (and governs) two phrases by coming between them. A synonym for mesozeugma
3554 conjunctio term given by the Ad Herennium author for synzeugma. Not to be confused with the part of speech having the same name, conjunctio (a conjunction).
3555 hypozeugma utility word of a sentence placed in last line or section
4100 rhythm ordered recurrent alternation of strong and weak elements in the flow of sound and silence in speech
4102 accentual-syllabic verse the metrical system that is most commonly used in English poetry. It is based on both the number of stresses, or accents, and the number of syllables in each line of verse
4104 accentual verse a fixed number of stresses per line or stanza regardless of the number of syllables that are present
4106 syllabic verse a fixed number of syllables per line or stanza regardless of the number of stresses that are present
4108 running rhythm structure is based on repeating groups of two or three syllables, with the stressed syllable falling in the same place on each repetition
4110 sprung rhythm structured around feet with a variable number of syllables, generally between one and four syllables per foot, with the stress always falling on the first syllable in a foot
4112 counterpoint musical technique involving the simultaneous sounding of separate musical lines. can be metaphorically applied to poetic rhythm
4114 quantitative meter meter that relies not on the alternation of heavily stressed or lightly stressed syllables, but rather on the alternation of “long syllables” and “short syllables”
4120 meter rhythmic pattern of stresses recurring in a poem. Metrical patterns are determined by the type and number of feet in a line of verse; combining the name of a line length with the name of a foot concisely describes the meter of the line.
4122 scansion the process of measuring the stresses in a line of verse in order to determine the metrical pattern of the line.
4124 accent The emphasis, or stress, given a syllable in pronunciation.
4126 stressed emphasis given to a syllable in pitch, volume or duration (or several of these).
4128 unstressed lack of emphasis given to a syllable in pitch, volume or duration (or several of these).
4130 foot The metrical unit by which a line of poetry is measured. A foot usually consists of one stressed and one or two unstressed syllables.
4132 iamb a metrical pattern of one unstressed syllable followed by one stressed syllable
4134 trochee a metrical pattern of one stressed syllable followed by one unstressed syllable.
4136 spondee a metrical pattern of two or more successively-placed stressed syllables.
4138 pyrrhic a metrical pattern of two short syllables. It is also known as a dibrach
4139 dibrach another term for a pyrrhic
4140 anapest two unstressed syllables followed by one stressed syllable
4142 dactyl a metrical pattern consisting of one stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables
4144 amphibrach three-syllable foot in English – unstressed, stressed, unstressed
4147 iambic pentameter a metrical pattern in poetry which consists of five iambic feet per line.
4148 blank verse unrhymed iambic pentameter
4149 alexandrine a line of twelve syllables, often with a caesura between the sixth and seventh syllables. Alternatively, an alexandrine may be divided into three four-syllable sections by two caesuras
4152 metrical pause a pause that supplies the place of an expected accented syllable. Unlike grammatical and rhetorical pauses, metrical pauses affect scansion.
4153 caesura a pause within a line of poetry that contributes to the rhythm of the line.
4154 acephalous line a metrical line whos first syllable is missing
4155 end-stopping a poetic line that has a pause at the end.
4156 enjambement in poetry, when one line ends without a pause and continues into the next line for its meaning.
4157 hypermetrical having a redundant syllable; exceeding the usual measure
4158 anacrusis lead-in syllables that precede the first full measure
4159 syllaba anceps metrical term? The last syllable of a verse may be short in itself; if it is short, it is regarded as long, because a spondee is required in the last foot. Such a syllable is known as the syllaba anceps (“doubtful syllable”).
4187 topos a standardised method of constructing or treating an argument
4200 rhyme correspondence of terminal sounds of words or of lines of verse
4201 rime riche rhyme using words or parts of words that are pronounced identically but have different meanings, for example, write-right or port-deport.
4202 masculine rhyme rhyming of single-syllable words. Masculine rhyme also occurs where rhyming words of more than one syllable, when the same sound occurs in a final stressed syllable, defend and contend, betray and away
4204 feminine rhyme feminine rhyme consists of a rhymed stressed syllable followed by one or more identical unstressed syllables,
4210 eye rhyme similarity in spelling between words that are pronounced differently and hence, not an auditory rhyme.
4212 paromoiosis parallelism of sounds
4213 parechesis repetition of the same sound in words in close succession
4214 assonance the repetition of the same sound in words close to each other.
4215 alliteration repetition of initial or medial consonants in two or more adjacent words
4216 paroemion alliteration taken to an extreme where nearly every word in a sentence begins with the same consonant. Sometimes, simply a synonym for alliteration or for homoeoprophoron.
4217 parimion alliteration where every word in phrase or sentence begins with the same consonant
4218 half-rhyme rhyme in which the final consonant sounds of two (or more) words are the same, but the initial consonants (if there are any) and the vowel sounds are different.
4219 near rhyme (also called off rhyme, slant rhyme, and approximate rhyme), form of rhyme where the sounds are almost but not exactly alike
4220 consonance common form of near rhyme which consists of identical consonant sounds preceded by different vowel soundshome, same; worth, breath
4221 pararhyme half-rhyme, consonance
4253 homeoteleuton similar sounding suffixes at end of clause
4254 homoioteleuton using words having the same or similar ending sounds in a sentence or phrase
4255 homoioptoton the repetition of similar case endings in adjacent words or in words in parallel position.
4270 form the overall structure or shape of a work, which frequently follows an established design. Forms may refer to a literary type (narrative form, short story form) or to patterns of meter, lines, and rhymes (stanza form, verse form).
4271 rhyme scheme the pattern of rhyming lines in a poem or in lyrics for music. It is usually referred to by using letters to indicate which lines rhyme
4275 stanza a unit within a poem, often called a verse.
4276 strophe a pair of stanzas of alternating form on which the structure of a given poem is based
4277 leonine rhyme verse using internal rhyme in which the middle and end of each line rhyme.
4278 monorhyme a poem in which all the lines have the same end rhyme
4281 couplet two consecutive lines of poetry that usually rhyme and have the same meter. A heroic couplet is a couplet written in rhymed iambic pentameter.
4282 quatrain a stanza or poem of four lines
4287 sonnet a fixed form of lyric poetry that consists of fourteen lines, usually written in iambic pentameter. The rhyme scheme of the English or Shakespearean sonnet (abab cdcd efef gg) is different from the Italian.
4289 rhyme royal the rhyme royal stanza consists of seven lines, usually in iambic pentameter. The rhyme scheme is a-b-a-b-b-c-c.
4290 terza rima a three-line stanza form with interlocking rhymes that move from one stanza to the next. The typical pattern is ABA, BCB, CDC, DED, and so on
4291 ottava rima 8-line stanzas rhyming abababcc
4295 free verse also called open form poetry, free verse refers to poems characterized by their nonconformity to established patterns of meter, rhyme, and stanza.
4300 conduplicatio the repetition of a word or words. A general term for repetition sometimes carrying the more specific meaning of repetition of words in adjacent phrases or clauses. Sometimes used to name either ploce or epizeuxis.
4301 repetend a word, sound or phrase repeated; a refrain
4302 epimone repeat same words or use refrain
4303 chorus (refrain?) phrase, verse, or group of verses repeated at intervals throughout a song or poem, especially at the end of each stanza
4304 paregmenon a general term for the repetition of a word or its cognates in a short sentence. Often, but not always, polyptoton.
4305 epanaphora repetition of the same word or words
at the beginning of successive phrases or clauses (also
called anaphora)
4306 palilogia repetition of the same word, with none between, for vehemence. Synonym for epizeuxis.
4307 epizeuxis word repeated with vehemence or emphasis
4308 hypozeuxis repetition of key verb or noun throughout series of clauses
4309 antimetabole repetition of words, in successive clauses, in reverse grammatical order
4310 epanalepsis repetition at end of clause of word that occurred at beginning
4311 anadiplosis repetition of the last word of one clause at the beginning of the following clause
4312 anaphora (epanaphora) repetition of word or phrase at the beginning of lines, clauses or sentences
4313 repetitio Latin equivalent for anaphora or Latin equivalent for epanalepsis. Note: This should not be confused with repetition in general, which manifests itself in a variety of ways across the spectrum of rhetoric.
4314 mesarchia the repetition of the same word or words at the beginning and middle of successive sentences.
4315 mesodiplosis repetition of the same word or words in the middle of successive sentences.
4316 antistrophe also called epiphora. Repetition of the same word or phrase at the end of successive clauses.
4317 epiphora antistrophe
4318 epistrophe repeat same word or phrase at end of clauses or sentences
4319 conversio Latin term for epistrope.
4320 symploce (complexio) combination of anaphora and epistrophe. repetition of first and last words
4321 adjunct an alternate term for symploce. Not to be confused with the topic of invention
4322 coenotes repetition of two different phrases: one at the beginning and the other at the end of successive paragraphs.
4350 polyptoton repetition of words derived from same root
4351 diacope repetition using various semantic senses of a word for effect
4352 repotia the repetition of a phrase with slight differences in style, diction, tone, etc. or A discourse celebrating a wedding feast.
4353 tautology the repetition of an idea in a different word, phrase, or sentence.
4354 tautologia the repetition of the same idea in different words, but (often) in a way that is wearisome or unnecessary.
Note: Not to be confused with the logical notion of tautology.
4355 overrepetition 0
4356 pleonasm superfluity
4357 pleonasmus pleonasm superfluity
4358 parelcon addition of superfluous words
4359 elegant variation phrase coined by Henry W. Fowler to refer to the unnecessary use of synonyms
4360 battologia vain repetition. A vice.
4361 macrologia longwindedness. Using more words than are necessary in an attempt to appear eloquent.
4362 homiologia tedious and unpleasant dragging out of a story. shaggy dog
4363 otiose 1: Lazy; indolent. 2: Of no use. 3: Ineffective; futile vain
4364 periphrasis roundabout expression for single word or proper name
5000 parallelism similarity of structure in a pair or series of related words, phrases or clauses equivalent things in co-ordinate grammatical structures
5001 metabasis balanced and parallel clauses e.g. from past to present to future
5002 isocolon parallelism where similarity not only of structure but of length in words or even syllables
5010 tricolon division into three
5020 membrum roughly equivalent to “clause” in English, except that the emphasis is on seeing this part of a sentence as needing completion, either with a second membrum (or colon) or with two others forming a tricolon.
5021 period the periodic sentence, characterized by the suspension of the completion of sense until its end. This has been more possible and favored in Greek and Latin,
5022 irmus last part of sentence completes sense
5023 paraprosdokian a surprise or unexpected ending of a phrase or series.
5031 parison series of equally constructed clauses that effect a sense of grace
5032 perissologia extraneous clause added to sentence to supply grace. No new sense.
5050 antithesis juxtapose opposite ideas of similar grammatical constructions balance of tensions achieved
5051 contentio Latin term for antithesis
Latin term for antitheton
5055 antimetathesis inversion of the members of an antithesis.
5060 euphuism elaborate prose style making use of balance and antithesis
6100 brevitas concise expression
6301 acyrologia inexact or illogical word – malapropism
6302 cacozelon malapropism, botched attempt to appear learned
6303 malapropism ludicrous misuse of a word, especially by confusion with one of similar sound
6304 acyron words with meaning opposite to intended
6305 amphilogia word or expression with ambiguous or disputed meaning
6306 ambiguous term given by George Puttenham for amphibologia. or The vice of ambiguity.
6307 amphibologia / amphiboly ambiguity caused by either grammatical looseness or multiple meanings of words
6308 solecism an element of speech or writing that is incorrect grammatically.
Like barbarisms, solecisms are possible according to each of the four categories of change.
6309 solecismus an element of speech or writing that is incorrect grammatically.
Like barbarisms, solecisms are possible according to each of the four categories of change.
6310 anoiconometon improper arrangement of words
6500 cadence rhythmic sequence or flow of sounds in language
6501 euphony effect produced by words or sounds so combined and uttered as to please the ear
6502 amphigory verse with little or no sense but mellifluous
6505 cacophony a harsh sequence of sounds.
6801 archaism the use of an older or obsolete form of a word.
6802 cacozelia use of classical language, especially Greek or Latin, to impress
6803 barbarism misuse of normal grammatical rules or mixing of two languages to form a word
6804 barbarismus use of nonstandard or foreign speech (see cacozelia)
6805 soriasmus to mingle different languages affectedly or without skill.
6806 graecismus using Greek words, examples, or grammatical structures. Sometimes considered an affectation of erudition.
6807 hebraism a linguistic feature typical of Hebrew occurring especially in another language
6808 asiatismus 0
6811 Matinism 0
6812 Gongorism deliberately obscure, meaningless, and affected ornamental style
6813 flourish florid bit of speech or writing
6814 skotison purposeful obscurity.
6821 bombast pompous or pretentious speech or writing
6822 bomphiologia exaggeration done in a self-aggrandizing manner, as a braggart.
6850 periergia overuse of words or figures of speech. As such, it may simply be considered synonymous with macrologia. However, as Puttenham’s term suggests, periergia may differ from simple superfluity in that the language appears over-labored.
6860 aschematiston unpoetic, cliched
6900 neologism newly-invented word or term
6901 nonce word word or phrase coined for specific work or occasion. Neologism.
6905 portmanteau combination of two or more words to create a new word
7010 onomatopoeia the use of words to imitate natural sounds; accommodation of sound to sense.
7020 energia a general term referring to the “energy” or vigor of a expression.Note: Energia is easily confused with enargia, vivid description (energia is not necessarily visual, and not necessarily descriptive).
7025 descriptio although descriptio is most often synonymous with enargia, the Ad Herennium author further specifies that it contains an exposition of the consequences of an act.
7100 mimesis theory of art invented by Aristotle in Poetics ca350bc
7101 ecphrasis the (often conventional) description of a person, event, place, season, or other commonplace thing. A more narrow kind of description than the general term for this activity, enargia. Closely related to the progymnasmata exercise, description.
7102 effiguration elaborate, detailed description of an object or an event
7103 pragmatographia colourfully recounts story of fictitious event
7106 epithet adjective or adjectival phrase characterising person or thing
7107 epitheton epithet adjective or descriptive phrase expressing a quality or attribute regarded as characteristic
7108 antonomasia replace proper name with most obvious quality or aspect or one whose name is a symbol
7109 ampliatio using the name of something or someone before it has obtained that name or after the reason for that name has ceased. A form of epitheton.
7110 sobriquet nichname or assumed name
7120 characterismus description of body and / or mind of a character
7121 prosopographia description of person’s appearance, personality, social and family connections, career
7122 prosographia vividly describe someone not present as if present
7123 enargia vivid description of someone absent
7124 effictio a verbal depiction of someone’s body, often from head to toe.Note: This figure was used in forensic rhetoric for purposes of clearly identifying an alleged criminal. It has often been adapted to poetical uses.
7125 ethopoeia genre of poetry vividly characterising someone mind, habits, or vices
7126 hypotyposis description of imaginative and fictional character, object or scene
7127 chreia the progymnasmata exercise, chreia. a brief reminiscence referring to some person in a pithy form for the purpose of edification. or Employing an anecdote which relates a saying or deed of someone well known.
7130 dialogismus speaking in another man’s person
7131 sermocinatio dialogismus. representation of fictional speech with imagined persons
7140 personification the attribution of personality to an impersonal thing.
7141 prosopopoeia like personification vivid and imaginative description lends human qualities to abstraction or animate or inanimate object
7142 pathetic fallacy the attribution of human emotions or characteristics to inanimate objects or to nature
7143 animism attribution of soul to inanimate objects
7144 anthropopatheia ascribing human attributes to God.
7145 inanimism opposite of animism
7146 antiprosopopoeia the representation of persons as inanimate objects.
7150 topographia (typographia) description of a place. A kind of enargia.
7151 geographia vivid representation of the earth to create an illusion of reality.
7152 chorographia description and mapping of regions or districts
7153 ecographia 0
7154 typographia (topographia) re-creation of once existing places landscape, local colour, mindscape, topographical poem, topothesia and triggering town
7155 chronographia creation of era or milieu through words
7156 topothesia creation of fictitious place
7157 hydrographia surveying and charting bodies of water
7161 anemographia creating an illusion of reality through description of the wind. A type of enargia.
7162 dendrographia creating an illusion of reality through vivid description of a tree.
Creating an illusion of reality through vivid description of a tree.
Creating an illusion of reality through vivid description of a tree.
7163 astrothesia a vivid description of stars. One type of enargia.
7180 anacreontics melodious verse of love or wine
7200 metonymy subject for characteristic(s), characteristic(s) for subject 1)effect for cause 2)object for user 3)substance for form 4)place for event 5)place for person 6)place for institution 7)institution for people 8)producer for product 9)controller fo controlled
7250 synecdoche part for whole 1)general for specific 2)specific for general 3)part for whole 4)material for object made from it
7260 hyponymy synecdoche substituting genus for species
7270 hypernymy synecdoche substituting species for genus
7305 comparatio a general term for a comparison, either as a figure of speech or as an argument. More specific terms are generally employed, such as metaphor, simile, allegory, etc.
7314 catachresis use of word from one dimension of meaning in another
7315 abusio catachresis
7316 abuse anglicisation of abusio (catachresis) or rhetorical vices or positive sense of employing word in a sense at odds with original use (see metaphor or trope)
7317 simile an explicit comparison between two things (usually using coordinated clauses, which are often introduced by ut … sic).
7318 epic simile also called a Homeric simile, is an extended comparison or cluster of similes or metaphors that are elaborated in great detail
7321 antapodosis simile in which objects compared correspond in several respects
7322 synonymia compares series of things equal in meaning but differing in form
7323 metaphor an implied comparison achieved through a figurative (rather than literal) use of words. note IA Richards tenor and vehicle, and Lakoff and others, target and source
7324 dead metaphor metaphor in which the sense of a transferred image is not present
7325 mixed metaphor the mixing of two or more inconsistent metaphors
7326 extended metaphor metaphor that sets up a principal subject with several subsidiary comparisons
7327 conceit an extended metaphor. Popular during the Renaissance and typical of John Donne or John Milton. Unlike allegory, which tends to have one-to-one correspondences, a conceit typically takes one subject and explores the metaphoric possibilities
7328 synaesthesia term that describes language that transfers imagery from one sense to another
7330 homoeosis persuade through comparison of similarities 1) icon 2) paradigma 3) parable 4) fable
7331 substitution primary step in analogue process
7340 icon comparison of persons or things through imagery
7350 paradigma compares two well-known examples with present situation
7360 parable the explicit drawing of a parallel between two essentially dissimilar things, especially with a moral or didactic purpose.
7361 parabola the explicit drawing of a parallel between two essentially dissimilar things, especially with a moral or didactic purpose. A parable.
7370 fable fictional story meant to teach a moral lesson
7373 apologue appeasing and persuading the rude and ignorant through comparisons made in form of a fable.
7375 allegory a sustained metaphor continued through whole sentences or even through a whole discourse.
7377 permutatio sometimes simply the Latin term for allegory. However, the Ad Herennium author defines permutatio in three ways. The first of these is akin to the conventional understanding of allegory, while the other two are comparisons involving allusions.
7415 paradox an assertion seemingly opposed to common sense, but that makes sense in context.
7418 oxymoron the apparent paradox achieved by the juxtaposed use of words which seem to contradict one another.
7420 synoeciosis expanded paradox
7430 irony an expression of something which is contrary to the intended meaning; i.e. the use of a word or phrase for its opposite.
7435 antiphrasis ironic use of one word or phrase sigifying opposite of lexical meaning
7436 enantiosis irony using opposites, often in different clauses
7440 hyperbole exaggeration or obvious overstatement for comic or dramatic effect
7445 adynaton a declaration of impossibility, usually in terms of an exaggerated comparison. Sometimes, the expression of the impossibility of expression.
7460 meiosis word of lesser degree for one of greater degree. humourous and ironic understatement
7462 tapinosis giving a name to something which diminishes it in importance. A kind of meiosis.
7463 understatement intentional representation of something as less than it is, either for ironic emphasis or for politeness and tact
7464 litotes deliberate understatement, especially when expressing a thought by denying its opposite.
7465 antenantiosis see litotes
7466 anticlimax a bathetic declension from a noble tone to a less exalted one-often for comic effect.
7467 bathos a ludicrous descent from the elevated to the low, in writing or speech; anticlimax originally used by Pope in his comic essay
7471 satire 1: a literary work holding up human vices and follies to ridicule or scorn 2 : trenchant wit, irony, or sarcasm used to expose and discredit vice or folly
7472 parody literary or musical work in which the style of an author or work is closely imitated for comic effect or in ridicule
7473 lampoon harsh satire usually directed against an individual
7501 noema jest, pun or riddle lies in dialectic of speech rather than a single word or phrase
7502 enigma riddle that intends to obscure rather than reveal
7503 pun usually humorous use of a word in such a way as to suggest two or more of its meanings or the meaning of another word similar in sound
7505 ploce repetition usually of a proper name with different meanings. see paradox
7515 paronomasia pun creating ambiguity from similar-sounding words or by changing a letter in a previously stated word
7516 prosonomasia see paronomasia
7517 adnominatio a synonym for paronomasia. or A synonym for polyptoton. or Assigning to a proper name its literal or homophonic meaning.
7520 double entendre a word or phrase having a double meaning, especially when the second meaning is risqué
7525 adianoeta an expression that, in addition to an obvious meaning, carries a second, subtle meaning (often at variance with the ostensible meaning).
7530 equivoque double entendre with two different or discordant meanings
7537 cacemphaton scurrilous jest, lewd allusion or double entendre
7538 aeschrologia another term for cacemphaton.
7539 aischrologia another term for cacemphaton.
7540 asteismus witty use of relation of words to each other and to reality. Purposeful misunderstanding. facetious or mocking…
7560 antistasis the repetition of a word in a contrary sense. Often, simply synonymous with antanaclasis.
7561 antanaclasis word obtains two or more meanings when repeated calls attention to word’s origins or sound values
7570 distinctio specific reference to various meanings of a word
7571 distinction argument based on meaning or notation of a word
7572 metallage when a word or phrase is treated as an object within another expression.
7573 correctio 1: correcting word or phrase used previously 2: preparing an audience to hear something unpleasant
7574 metanoia qualifying a statement by recalling it and expressing it in a different way
7575 appositio addition of an adjacent, coordinate, explanatory or descriptive element.
7576 apposition placing side by side of two co-ordinate elements, the second of which serves as an explanation or modification of the first
7577 epexegesis addition of words to clarify meaning
7580 isodunamia to add, remove or double a negative in words which mean the opposite
7581 aequipollentia to add, remove or double a negative in words which mean the opposite
8100 taxis to divide a subject up into its various components or attributes. Expresses the most salient features of things
8101 distribution use a term to include every individual of the class to which it refers
8102 systrophe conglomerate definition composed of descriptions from diverse classes
8150 horismus term defined through elaboration
8151 diaphora repetition using a word in general sense then in qualifying sense
8155 peristasis defines thing or person through circumstance
8156 diaskeue graphic peristasis (description of circumstances) intended to arouse the emotions.
8200 merismus the dividing of a whole into its parts.
8201 anatomy study of the structure or internal workings
8205 eutrepismus naming of parts in correct logical order
8209 distributio assigning roles among or specifying the duties of a list of people, sometimes accompanied by a conclusion. or Sometimes this term is simply a synonym for diaeresis or merismus, which are more general figures involving division.
8210 diaeresis (dieresis) genus into species divide something of general nature into specific parts (has other meanings)
8250 enumeration subject in terms of 1)characterismus 2)circumstances leading up to 3)effect
8255 alloiosis breaking down subject into alternatives
8290 congeries disorderly collection, jumble
8295 juxtaposition placing two or more things side by side
8313 catacomesis compares and orders entities of greater, lesser and equal characteristics
8314 catacosmesis ordering words from greatest to least in dignity, or in correct order of time.
8315 emphasis give important elements important positions and adequate development also intangible quality for more concrete term
8317 continuatio dense, uninterrupted series of words expressing a single thought, generally a complex sentence having from two to four interdependant clauses or membra (although Aristotle allows a “simple” period).
8318 epitrochasmus swift movement from one statement to another
8320 exordium beginning or introductory part
8321 propositio briefly outlining what is to follow in detail
8322 paradiegesis an introductory narrative (often a digression) used to open a speech.
8323 prolepsis brief summary then parts listed in detail. (other uses of term)
8324 anticipation English term for prolepsis or for procatalepsis.
English term for procatalepsis.
8325 digestion an orderly enumeration of points to be discussed
8326 assumptio the introduction of a point to be considered, especially an extraneous argument. See proslepsis.
8330 amplification general term for all the ways an argument, an explanation, or a description can be expanded and enriched
8331 epergesis additional information
8332 auxesis building to a climax, or hyperbole, or amplification in general
8333 climax words phrases or clauses in order of increasing importance
8334 exergasia equal comparison incrementally setting down series of metaphorical equivalents similar in meaning but not in form usually climactic usually tenor has more than one vehicle
8335 expolitio the equivalent Latin term for exergasia.
8336 parecbasis greater, lesser, or equal ideas in oblique digression that intensifies argument
8337 epanorthosis relates what has already been stated for sake of greater or lesser comparison
8338 progressio advancing by steps of comparison
8339 epanodos general proposition followed by parts,a figure of repetition, and a figure of climax. or repetition of sentence in inverse order or return to regular thread of discourse after digression
8340 restrictio state general as condition then excepting part of general
8350 digressio a departure from logical progression in a speech.
8351 excursus a digression.
8355 reditus ad propositum return to the subject after a digression
8390 anacephalaeosis a recapitulation of the facts. A kind of summary employed in the peroratio.
8391 complexio Latin term for anacephalaeosis.
Latin term for symploce.
Latin term for coenotes.
8392 enumeratio a synonym for anacephalaeosis. or Dividing a subject into its adjuncts, a cause into its effects, or an antecedent into its consequents. or A synonym for expeditio.
8394 accumulatio bringing together various points made throughout a speech and presenting them again in a forceful, climactic way. A blend of summary and climax.
8395 symperasma a conclusion that includes a brief summary of the foregoing.
8396 epitasis the addition of a concluding sentence that merely emphasizes what has already been stated. A kind of amplification.
8397 anesis adding a concluding sentence that diminishes the effect of what has been said previously. The opposite of epitasis.
8398 synathroesmus accumulates descriptive phrases or gathers previous points
8399 epiphonema exclamation that summarises or concludes a discourse
8420 thesis position or proposition that a person advances and offers to maintain by argument a proposition to be proved or one advanced without proof
8425 synesis also known as constructio ad sensum, or construction according to sense. The agreement of words according to logic, and not by the grammatical form; a kind of anacoluthon.
8426 dialysis first states major premise, then reasons, then conclusion. arguing from series of disjunctive propositions
8428 elenchus a logical refutation
8431 enthymeme form of syllogism 1) make statement followed by statement for that cause 2) poses contradictory propositions in order to refute 3) omit a major or minor premise that is implied
8432 conclusio term given by the Ad Herennium author for enthymeme. Not to be confused with conclusion, the English equivalent of the last part of an oration, the peroratio.
8433 sorites concatenated enthymemes. That is, a chain of claims and reasons which build upon one another.Sorites is sometimes seen as, and certainly can be, a logical fallacy
8435 analogy reason or argue from parallel cases
8437 adjunctio assertion in single formula of two previously asserted formulae
8440 dialectic the logical movement of ideas in an argument, and a major technique used by debators to undermine an opponent’s argument by stating it, then pointing out its deficiencies, and then proceeding to state the strengths of the proponent’s point of view
8442 antilogy a contradiction either in terms or ideas. More generally, antilogy names the basic rhetorical theory (propounded by Protagoras) that two contrary arguments may be given about everything. See in utrumque partes.
8443 contrarium one of two opposite statements used to prove the other
8444 antitheton a proof or composition constructed of contraries.
8445 contencion English term for antitheton.
8446 syncoeciosis accumulates opposite statements
8447 syncrisis contrasts opposing persons / things in one statement
8448 epergesis qualifying opposition
8449 antanagoge contradiction by stating something negative then balancing it with something positive balance unfavourable aspect with favourable one
8459 antinomy comparing one law or part of to another
8461 deliberatio evaluating possible courses of action
8462 expeditio rejection of all but one of various alternatives
8463 epilogus hypothetically supposes if certain events, then others follow
8464 hypothetical proposition shows consequences of proposed action
8471 formal cause self-contained identity of a thing, separates a thing from all others
8472 material cause first speaks of thing then of material from which it is made
8473 efficient cause agent and instrument linked through usage
8474 final cause takes into account the intention of a certain thing or person
8475 antisagoge antecedent and consequent linked together in logical dimension
8476 metalepsis under final cause. present effect from remote cause
8489 dirimens copulatio condition followed by greater cause or reason
8501 hypocrisis delivery, literally, acting
8502 commoratio bolster main point with disparate expressions.Dwelling on or returning to one’s strongest argument. Latin equivalent for epimone.
8503 prosapodosis list reasons for some purpose, not omitting, reinforcing each as spoken. usually tone of reproval or unpleasantness
8504 aphorismus question use of some word or phrase
8505 apocrisis replying to own arguments
8506 significatio imply more than one says
8507 syllogismus The use of a remark or an image which calls upon the audience to draw an obvious conclusion. Like a rhetorical enthymeme, but more compact, and frequently relying on an image. Not to be confused with the “syllogism” of formal logic (see enthymeme).
8508 apodioxis reject opponent’s arguments as impertinent, needless, absurd, false, or wicked.
8510 diasyrmus outright rejection by absurd comparison
8511 categoria opening the secret wickedness of one’s adversary before his face.
8512 amphidiorthosis hedge charge made in anger by qualification
8513 protrope command or promise then give reasons for doing what is commanded
8514 koinonia consulting with opponents or the judges
8515 synchoresis speaker gives his questioners leave to judge him
8516 apostrophe a sudden turn from the general audience to address a specific group or person, or, personified abstraction absent or present.
8517 prosphonesis a synonym for apostrophe.
8518 insinuatio a method for securing good will within the exordium (introduction) using dissimulation and concealment
8519 peroration impassioned summary
8520 dilemma argument that offers opponent unacceptable choices
8521 divisio dilemma. to propose two alternatives and dismiss both
8522 pseudomenos argument that forces one’s adversary to lie
8530 heterogenium irrelevant answer to distract attention
8531 apoplanesis completely evade issue or question
8532 leptologia subtle speaking, quibbling
8533 equivocation fallacious form of argumentation using word of two meanings that apply to a single situation
8542 procatalepsis speaker undermines opponent’s argument or objection by anticipating and answering it
8543 argumentum ex concessis reasoning from premisses of opponent
8544 peristrophe converting an opponent’s argument to one’s own use
8545 metastasis by digression turn an opponent’s arguments back against him
8546 paramologia admitting a weaker point in order to make a stronger one
8547 epitrope speaker either ironically or sincerely gives up something an opponent wants
8548 apophasis hold back main reason or ironic denial
8549 accismus a feigned refusal of that which is earnestly desired.
8550 epitrophe ironical or earnest permission to opponent or disputant
8551 paromologia give in to gain advantage by subsequently bringing out reasons that overturn previous concession
8552 concessio jesting yielding
8560 rhetorical question the rhetorical question is usually defined as any question asked for a purpose other than to obtain the information the question asks.
8561 erotema question not for purpose of soliciting answer but to assert or deny something
8562 interrogatio primarily, interrogatio is simply the Latin term for erotema (the rhetorical question). In the Ad Herennium, however, interrogatio is described as employing a question as a way of confirming or reinforcing the argument one has just made.
8563 subjectio questioner suggests answer to his own question
8564 sermocinatio speaker answers remarks or questions of a pretended interlocutor
8565 pysma forcefully repeat many accusing questions one after another
8566 anacoenosis seem to ask advice or ask opinion of hearers or readers
8567 erotesis question boldly asserts opposite of what is asked
8568 aporia self-doubting argumentative soliloquy
8569 ratiocinatio question addressed by speaker to himself
8570 anthypophora arguing with self; asking questions then answering
8571 hypophora asking questions and answering them
8572 hypophoria [alternative spelling of hypophora?]
8573 dianoea the use of animated questions and answers in developing an argument (sometimes simply the equivalent of anthypophora).
8581 pareuresis refute accusation by showing premeditated reasons that are strong enough to dismiss objections to the deed
8582 dicaeologia excuse showing absolute necessity
8583 anangeon admitting what’s charged against one, but excusing it by neccessity.
8584 proecthesis excuse that gives good reason why one should not be blamed for transgression of authority
8585 protherapeia preparing one’s audience for what one is about to say through conciliating words. If what is to come will be shocking, the figure is called prodiorthosis.
8586 prodiorthosis a statement intended to prepare one’s audience for something shocking or offensive. An extreme example of protherapeia.
8587 procatasceue preparing an audience to tell them something one has done
8591 paralipsis (paralepsis?) emphasise point by ironically pretending to pass it by
8592 praeteritio also known as apophasis and paraleipsis. A pretended omission for rhetorical effect.
8593 cataphasis a kind of paralipsis in which one explicitly affirms the negative qualities that one then passes over.
8594 affirmation English equivalent for cataphasis. or English equivalent for affirmatio
8595 proslepsis when paralipsis (stating and drawing attention to something in the very act of pretending to pass it over) is taken to its extreme. The speaker provides full details.
8600 logical fallacy any common type of error of reasoning
8601 formal fallacy the distinction between a formal and an informal fallacy is that a formal fallacy is based solely on logical form, and an informal fallacy takes into account the non-logical content of the argument.
8602 non sequitur (“It does not follow”). This is the simple fallacy of stating, as a conclusion, something that does not strictly follow from the premises.
8620 syllogistic fallacy any non-validating form of categorical syllogism.
8621 affirmative conclusion from a negative premise any form of categorical syllogism with an affirmative conclusion and at least one negative premise
8622 negative conclusion from affirmative premisses illicit negative / affirmative
8623 exclusive premisses any form of categorical syllogism with two negative premisses.
8624 two negative premisses exclusive premisses
8625 illicit process of the major any form of categorical syllogism in which the major term is distributed in the conclusion, but not in the major premiss.
8626 illicit major any form of categorical syllogism in which the major term is distributed in the conclusion, but not in the major premiss.
8627 illicit process of the minor any form of categorical syllogism in which the minor term is distributed in the conclusion but not in the minor premiss.
8628 illicit minor any form of categorical syllogism in which the minor term is distributed in the conclusion but not in the minor premiss.
8629 illicit negative / affirmative any form of categorical syllogism with a negative conclusion and affirmative premisses.
8630 quaternio terminorum four-term fallacy
8631 four-term fallacy quaternio terminorum. An argument commits the Four-Term Fallacy which appears to have the form of a validating categorical syllogism, but has four terms.
8633 undistributed middle any form of categorical syllogism in which the middle term is not distributed at least once.
8634 improper disjunctive syllogism p or q. p. Therefore, not-q.
8635 false conversion All P are Q. Therefore, all Q are P. or Some P are not Q. Therefore, some Q are not P.
8636 illicit conversion false conversion. All P are Q. Therefore, all Q are P.
8640 propositional fallacy general term for fallacies of propositional logic
8641 affirming a disjunct fallacy of the following form – p or q. p.Therefore, not-q.
8642 asserting an alternative affirming a disjunct
8643 alternative syllogism affirming a disjunct
8644 affirming the consequent If p then q. q. Therefore, p.
8645 asserting the consequent affirming the consequent
8646 commutation of conditionals If p then q. Therefore, if q then p.
8647 converting a conditional commutation of conditionals
8648 fallacy of the consequent commutation of conditionals
8649 denying a conjunct Not both p and q. Not p. Therefore, q.
8650 fallacy of the disjunctive syllogism denying a conjunct
8651 denial of the antecedent If p then q. Not-p. Therefore, not-q.
8652 denying the antecedent denial of the antecedent
8653 improper transposition If p then q. Therefore, if not-p then not-q.
8654 negating antecedent and consequent improper transposition
8660 quantificational fallacy general term for fallacies of quantificational logic
8661 existential fallacy any argument whose conclusion implies that a class has at least one member, but whose premisses do not so imply.
8663 illicit quantifier shift Every P bears the relation R to some Q. Therefore, some Q bears the inverse of relation R to every P.
8664 quantifier-shift fallacy illicit quantifier shift
8665 some are / some are not Some S are P. Therefore, some S are not P.
8666 unwarranted contrast some are / some are not
8670 modal fallacy formal fallacies in which modality plays a role in the fallaciousness of a type of argument
8671 modal scope fallacy modal scope fallacy occurs when amphiboly over whether a modality has broad or narrow scope is exploited
8675 illicit substitution of identicals also known as masked man fallacy. a = b. Ca (where C is an intensional context). Therefore, Cb.
8680 argumentum ad logicam to say that an argument is fallacious is to claim that there is no sufficiently strong logical connection between the premisses and the conclusion. This says nothing about the truth-value of the conclusion.
8681 fallacist’s fallacy / fallacy fallacy argumentum ad logicam
8682 bad reasons fallacy argument A for the conclusion C is unsound. Therefore, C is false.
8700 informal fallacy an informal fallacy is one that is not formal, that is, it is a type of fallacy in which the content of the argument is relevant to its fallaciousness, or which is fallacious for epistemological, dialectical, or pragmatic reasons.
8710 fallacy of presumption unsound arguments involving unfounded or unproven assumptions contained within the premises. Includes begging the question, argument from ignorance, false cause, generalisation, complex question and ignoratio elenchi.
8711 dicto simpliciter A dicto simpliciter ad dictum secundum quid. Sweeping generalisation.
8712 fallacy of accident A dicto simpliciter ad dictum secundum quid
8713 sweeping generalisation A dicto simpliciter ad dictum secundum quid
8714 hasty generalisation fallacy committed when a person draws a conclusion about a population based on a sample that is not large enough
8715 converse accident hasty generalisation
8716 biased sample fallacy committed when a person draws a conclusion about a population based on a sample that is biased or prejudiced in some manne
8717 unrepresentative sample biased sample
8718 misleading vividness a fallacy in which a very small number of particularly dramatic events are taken to outweigh a significant amount of statistical evidence
8719 spotlight committed when a person uncritically assumes that all members or cases of a certain class or type are like those that receive the most attention or coverage in the media
8720 Volvo fallacy when the vividness of a recent memory, or the strikingness of an unusual event, leads one to overestimate the probability of events of that type occurring, especially if you have better evidence
8725 fallacy of significance an assertion which seems to have an importance to the point at issue, but which does not.
8726 fallacy of emphasis or accent incorrect emphasis of the words in a sentence. Improper stress is placed on some portion of a premise or conclusion so the meaning of the argument is distorted.
8730 petitio principii (begging the question). This is the fallacy of assuming, when trying to prove something, what it is that you are trying prove. For all practical purposes, this fallacy is indistinguishable from circular argumentation.
8731 circulus in demonstrando (circular argument). Circular argumentation occurs when someone uses what they are trying to prove as part of the proof of that thing.
8732 circular argument circulus in demonstrando
8733 circulus in probando circulus in demonstrando
8734 vicious circle begging the question
8735 begging the question also known as petitio principii, circulus in probando, circular argument, vicious circle
8736 question-begging analogy an analogical argument begs the question when the strength of the analogy depends upon some controversial point at issue.
8740 weak analogy A is like B. B has property P. Therefore, A has property P. (Where the analogy between A and B is weak.)
8741 faulty analogy weak analogy
8742 questionable analogy weak analogy
8743 false analogy weak analogy
8750 plurium interrogationum many questions
8751 many questions plurium interrogationum: “many questions”, Latin complex question
8752 complex question a complex question is a question that implicitly assumes something to be true by its construction
8753 loaded question complex question
8755 argumentum ad ignorantiam (argument to ignorance). This is the fallacy of assuming something is true simply because it hasn’t been proven false.
8756 argument from ignorance also known as Argumentum ad Ignorantiam. There is no evidence against p. Therefore, p.
8757 ignoratio elenchi (“ignorance of refutation”, Latin) red herring
8758 red herring introducing irrelevant facts or arguments to distract from the question at hand
8759 irrelevant thesis ignorantio elenchi, red herring
8760 non causa pro causa false cause
8761 false cause non causa pro causa. This is the most general fallacy of reasoning to conclusions about causality.
8762 cum hoc ergo propter hoc (with this, therefore because of this). This is the familiar fallacy of mistaking correlation for causation — i.e., thinking that because two things occur simultaneously, one must be a cause of the other.
8763 post hoc ergo propter hoc (after this, therefore because of this). This is the fallacy of assuming that A caused B simply because A happened prior to B.
8764 post hoc a fallacy with the following form: A occurs before B. Therefore A is the cause of B.
8765 confusing cause and effect a fallacy that has the following general form: A and B regularly occur together. Therefore A is the cause of B.
8766 ignoring a common cause fallacy having the following general structure: A and B are regularly connected (but no third, common cause is looked for). Therefore A is the cause of B.
8767 questionable cause this fallacy has the following general form: A and B are associated on a regular basis. Therefore A is the cause of B.
8770 gambler’s fallacy a fallacy committed when a person assumes that a departure from what occurs on average or in the long term will be corrected in the short term
8771 Monte Carlo fallacy gambler’s fallacy
8772 regression / regressive fallacy the regression fallacy occurs when one mistakes regression to the mean for a causal relationship.
8773 Texas Sharpshooter fallacy this fallacy occurs when someone jumps to the conclusion that a cluster in some data must be the result of a cause, usually one that it is clustered around.
8780 fallacy of ambiguity as a logical fallacy, ambiguity occurs when linguistic ambiguity causes the form of an argument to appear validating when it is not. Includes equivocation, amphiboly, composition and division.
8781 ambiguous middle any valid form of categorical syllogism with an ambiguous middle term.
8782 accent ambiguity by accents used to indicate pronunciation
8783 equivocation based on ambiguity of a word or phrase (lexical rather than grammatical)
8784 doublespeak equivocation
8785 amphiboly / amphibology ambiguity resulting from ambiguous grammar. The fallacy of Amphiboly occurs when a bad argument trades upon grammatical ambiguity to create an illusion of cogency.
8786 scope fallacy ambiguity based on scope. Logical terms such as “not” have a scope, that is, a part of the proposition in which they occur that they affect logically.
8787 vagueness the fallacy of vagueness occurs only when the appearance of soundness in an argument depends upon vagueness in its terms.
8788 composition a fallacy committed when a conclusion is drawn about a whole based on the features of its constituents when, in fact, no justification is provided for the inference
8789 division a fallacy committed when a person infers that what is true of a whole must also be true of its constituents and justification for that inference is not provided
8800 fallacy of relevance arguments containing premises which do not bear on the conclusions drawn in the argument.
8801 argumentum ad populum (argument or appeal to the public). This is the fallacy of trying to prove something by showing that the public agrees with you.
8802 argumentum ad numerum (argument or appeal to numbers). This fallacy is the attempt to prove something by showing how many people think that it’s true
8803 bandwagon fallacy the bandwagon fallacy is committed whenever one argues for an idea based upon an irrelevant appeal to its popularity.
8804 argument by consensus bandwagon fallacy
8805 authority of the many bandwagon fallacy
8806 appeal to belief a fallacy that has this general pattern: Most people believe that a claim, X, is true. Therefore X is true.
8807 appeal to common practice a fallacy with the following structure: X is a common action. Therefore X is correct/moral/justified/reasonable, etc.
8808 argumentum ad verecundiam (argument or appeal to authority). This fallacy occurs when someone tries to demonstrate the truth of a proposition by citing some person who agrees, even though that person may have no expertise in the given area.
8809 ipse dixit (“He, himself, said it”, Latin) Appeal to misleading authority
8810 argumentum ad antiquitatem (the argument to antiquity or tradition). This is the familiar argument that some policy, behavior, or practice is right or acceptable because “it’s always been done that way.”
8811 appeal to novelty a fallacy that occurs when it is assumed that something is better or correct simply because it is new
8812 naturalistic fallacy this is the fallacy of trying to derive conclusions about what is right or good (that is, about values) from statements of fact alone.
8813 appeal to nature this is the fallacy of assuming that whatever is “natural” or consistent with “nature” (somehow defined) is good, or that whatever conflicts with nature is bad.
8814 relativist fallacy committed when a person rejects a claim by asserting that the claim might be true for others but is not for him/her
8815 argumentum ad consequentiam arguing that a proposition is true because belief in it has good consequences, or that it is false because belief in it has bad consequences is often an irrelevancy.
8816 appeal to consequences of a belief X is true / false because if people accept / do not accept X as being true / false then there will be positive / negative consequences. Also includes wishful thinking.
8817 wishful thinking as a logical fallacy, wishful thinking is an argument whose premiss expresses a desire for the conclusion to be true.
8818 argumentum ad baculum appeal to force. The name “argumentum ad baculum” alludes to the use of a stick, or club, to beat someone.
8819 argument from force a technique of distraction which occurs when force, or the threat of force, is used to “win” a debate. More frequently, it is used to cover up the fact that the threatener is losing.
8820 emotional appeal a type of argument which attempts to arouse the emotions of its audience in order to gain acceptance of its conclusion
8821 appeal to emotion a fallacy with the following structure: Favorable emotions are associated with X. Therefore, X is true.
8822 argumentum ad metum appeal to fear. A fallacy with the following pattern: Y is presented (a claim that is intended to produce fear). Therefore claim X is true (a claim that is generally, but need not be, related to Y in some manner).
8823 appeal to fear argumentum ad metum
8824 argumentum ad odium appeal to hatred
8825 argument from hatred also known as Argumentum ad Odium
8826 argumentum ad misericordiam argument or appeal to pity
8827 appeal to spite a fallacy in which spite is substituted for evidence when an “argument” is made against a claim
8828 argumentum ad superbium appeal to pride
8829 argument from pride also known as Argumentum ad Superbium
8830 appeal to flattery a fallacy of the following form: Person A is flattered by person B. Person B makes claim X. Therefore X is true.
8831 argumentum ad invidiam argument from envy.
8832 argument from envy also known as Argumentum ad Invidiam
8833 appeal to ridicule a fallacy in which ridicule or mockery is substituted for evidence in an “argument.”
8834 argumentum ad nauseam (argument to the point of disgust; i.e., by repetition). This is the fallacy of trying to prove something by saying it again and again.
8835 genetic fallacy a line of “reasoning” in which a perceived defect in the origin of a claim or thing is taken to be evidence that discredits the claim or thing itself, or origin as evidence for the claim
8840 argumentum ad hominem (argument directed at the person). This is the error of attacking the character or motives of a person who has stated an idea, rather than the idea itself.
8841 circumstantial ad hominem a fallacy in which one attempts to attack a claim by asserting that the person making the claim is making it simply out of self interest
8842 personal attack when a person substitutes abusive remarks for evidence when attacking another person’s claim or claims
8843 poisoning the well trying to discredit what a person might later claim by presenting unfavorable information (be it true or false) about the person
8844 tu quoque (ad hominem tu quoque) (“you too”). This is the fallacy of defending an error in one’s reasoning by pointing out that one’s opponent has made the same error.
8845 guilt by association a fallacy in which a person rejects a claim simply because it is pointed out that people she dislikes accept the claim
8846 bad company fallacy guilt by association – the attempt to discredit an idea based upon disfavored people or groups associated with it.
8847 the company that you keep fallacy guilt by association
8848 two wrongs make a right a fallacy in which a person “justifies” an action against a person by asserting that the person would do the same thing to him/her, when the action is not necessary to prevent B from doing X to A
8849 special pleading a fallacy in which a person applies standards, principles, rules, etc. to others while taking herself (or those she has a special interest in) to be exempt, without providing adequate justification for the exemption
8850 loaded language / words a word or phrase is “loaded” when it has a secondary, evaluative meaning in addition to its primary, descriptive meaning.
8851 question-begging epithets loaded language / words
8852 one-sidedness a one-sided case presents only evidence favoring its conclusion, and ignores or downplays the evidence against it.
8853 one-sided assessment one-sidedness
8854 suppressed evidence one-sidedness. ignoring the counterevidence
8855 slanting one-sidedness. related to bias.
8856 card stacking ignoring the counterevidence; one-sidedness
8860 black-and-white fallacy a fallacy in which a person uses the following pattern of “reasoning”: Either claim X is true or claim Y is true (when X and Y could both be false). Claim Y is false. Therefore claim X is true.
8861 black-or-white fallacy black-and-white fallacy
8862 either / or fallacy black-and-white fallacy
8863 false dilemma a fallacy in which a person uses the following pattern of “reasoning”: Either claim X is true or claim Y is true (when X and Y could both be false). Claim Y is false. Therefore claim X is true.
8864 bifurcation black-or-white fallacy
8865 straw man this is the fallacy of refuting a caricatured or extreme version of somebody’s argument, rather than the actual argument they’ve made.
8866 slippery slope a slippery slope fallacy is an argument that says adopting one policy or taking one action will lead to a series of other policies or actions also being taken, without showing a causal connection between the advocated policy and the consequent policies.
8867 argument of the beard slippery slope
8868 middle ground fallacy committed when it is assumed that the middle position between two extremes must be correct simply because it is the middle position
8871 quoting out of context to quote out of context is to remove a passage from its surrounding matter in such a way as to distort its meaning.
8872 abstraction quoting out of context
8881 false precision this fallacy occurs when an argument treats information as more precise than it really is.
8882 misplaced precision false precision
8883 fake precision false precision
8884 spurious accuracy false precision
8891 burden of proof a fallacy in which the burden of proof is placed on the wrong side
9100 exemplum example cited, either true or feigned illustrative story proof by analogy to the deeds of historical or fabulous men
9101 example amplifying a point by providing a true or feigned example.
9201 sententia one of several terms describing short, pithy sayings. Others include adage, apothegm, gnome, maxim, paroemia, and proverb.
9202 apophonema sententia put in antithetical form
9203 paroemia one of several terms describing short, pithy sayings.
9204 paromia proverb
9205 proverb one of several terms describing short, pithy sayings. Others include adage, apothegm, gnome, maxim, paroemia, and sententia.
9206 gnome one of several terms describing short, pithy sayings. Others include adage, apothegm, maxim, paroemia, proverb, and sententia.
9207 adage one of several terms describing short, pithy sayings, or traditional expressions of conventional wisdom.
9208 maxim one of several terms describing short, pithy sayings. Others include apothegm, gnome, paroemia, proverb, and sententia.
9209 apothegm brief, famous saying, usually in figurative language
9210 aenos quoting wise sayings from fables or the moral to the end of a fable
9211 apomnemonysis appropriate saying complementing speaker’s purposes
9212 chria short summary of an action or saying naming quoted author
9213 epicrisis use of quotation then comment on or judge it
9214 adjudicatio Latin term for epicrisis.
9215 apodixis common experience or knowledge
9216 antirrhesis reject evil authority
9217 paradiorthosis twist well known quotation without crediting author
9218 aetiologia explanation from myth
9219 oraculum quoting God’s commandments
9220 martyria use one’s own experience as authority
9221 diatyposis originating of rules to live by for one’s audience or for posterity
9501 pathopoeia a general term for speech that moves hearers emotionally, especially as the speaker attempts to elicit an emotional response by way of demonstrating his/her own feelings (exuscitatio).
9502 excitatio to excite an audience, especially out of a stupor or boredom. Kinds of excitatio include an acclamatio, an invocation, a digression affirming, denying, or prohibiting something, or a simple admonishment not to sleep.
9503 ecphonesis exclamatory speech
9504 exclamatio most often exclamatio is simply the Latin term for ecphonesis (an emotional exclamation); however, it has also been used (as in the Ad Herennium) to indicate apostrophe.
9505 exuscitatio excites audience through tone either positively or negatively
9506 donysis or intention, and some call it imagination, whereby fear, anger, madness, hatred, envy, and like other perturbations of mind is showed and described
9507 dehortatio
9508 apagoresis a statement designed to inhibit someone from doing something.
9509 parrhesia 1: shows humility for real or imagined offences 2: shows boldness, freedom of expression or frankness
9511 comprobatio approving and commending a virtue, especially in the hearers.
9512 comprobation rewards audience for its actions or character
9513 combrobatio [alternative spelling of comprobatio?]
9514 communicatio In general, to include one’s audience overtly in a discourse. A term that comprises several more specific ones.
9515 encomium (encomia) Greek choral song praising winners. poems of laudatory nature
9516 eulogia praises someone or something highly, especially if just died
9517 eulogy praises someone or something highly, especially if just died
9518 eucharista lauds benefactors for good received and belittles self
9520 circumlocutio as the name implies, “talking around” something, usually by supplying a descriptive phrase in place of a name. Circumlocutions are rhetorically useful as euphemisms, as a method of amplification, or to hint at something without stating it.
9521 euphemism the use of mild or discreet language for unpleasant topics.
9522 intimation hinting at a meaning but not stating it explicitly.
9523 ennoia a kind of purposeful holding back of information that nevertheless hints at what is meant. A kind of circuitous speaking.
9524 schematismus circuitous speech created by suspicions. planned meaning left unspoken for safety, modesty or grace
9525 charientismus offering of pleasing, obsequious words sometimes ironically
9526 paradiastole comparison to sooth, flatter or assuage
9530 euphemismus prophesies good fortune
9540 adhortatio a commandment, promise, or exhortation intended to move one’s consent or desires.
9541 eustaphia asserts one’s support and loyalty. sometimes an invocation
9542 eustathia promising constancy in purpose and affection.
9543 orcos swear oath supporting or denying what one has already said
9544 euche solemn promise or vow
9546 asphalia speaker offers to hold himself responsible for audience or what it holds dear
9550 optatio appeals to God or man that wish be granted
9551 oeonismus Greek term for optatio.
9552 deesis speaker fervently desires something for sake of God or mankind
9553 deprecatio a praying against evil, against others, or oneself; a prayer for the removal of some evil.
9554 paeanismus full of joy at some goodness attained or evil avoided
9555 threnos laments own or another’s suffering
9556 anamnesis sorrowful recalling of the past used in dirge elegy eulogy lament
9557 mempsis complains and seeks help
9558 oictros or commiseration, whereby tears be piked out, or pity is moved, or forgiveness, as in Cicero’s perorations, and complaints in poets
9559 epiplexis asking questions in order to chide, to express grief, or to inveigh. A kind of rhetorical question.
9560 paramythia tries to mitigate misery of someone suffering
9561 apocarteresis speaker loses hope of gaining or maintaining something so turns to something else
9562 philophronesis trying to mitigate anger by gentle speech and humble submission
9563 aposiopesis sudden breaking off in middle of a sentence from unwillingness or inability to continue from awesome emotion or obvious or sordid detail stopping suddenly in midcourse, leaving statement unfinished
9564 reticentia aposiopesis
9571 aganactesis an exclamation proceeding from deep indignation.
9572 indignatio displeasure, indignation. Latin term for aganactesis.
9573 billingsgate coarsely abusive language.
bloviate
9575 inter se pugnantia scolding of opponent for lack of character or high-mindedness. usually couched in contradictory terms
9576 onedismus scolds opponent for miserable character
9577 anticategoria mutual accusation or recrimination
9578 epiplexus scolds fiercely or exposes speaker’s grief
9579 exouthenismos an expression of contempt.
9580 apaetesis angry putting aside of a matter to be taken up later
9581 proclees provokes conflict by finding fault with opponent or demanding reasons for certain behaviour
9582 bdelygmia expresses ill wishes on person or thing
9583 abominatio Latin term for bdelygmia or latin term for apodioxis
9584 perclusio a threat against someone, or something.
9585 cataplexis threatening catastrophe upon person or thing
9586 mycterismus replies to remark with a mocking, scowling tone
9587 sarcasmus cutting and bitter retort
9588 amara irrisio another term for sarcasmus.
9589 jeremiad complains about the distressing state of man, forcefully mourns a loss, or rants of coming doom
9590 ominatio prophesy consequences of evil act or vice
9591 paraenesis warns or berates
9592 admonitio Latin term for paraenesis.
9595 benedictio a blessing, or the act of blessing.
9596 imprecation cursing or damning of a person malediction
9597 ara shows hatred for the evil in a person or the evil he carries with him
9598 syngnome puts aside wrongs of adversaries and asks that they be treated leniently
9599 medela recognises negative but attempts to better conditions through kind or approving words
9700 figure traditionally defined as the various uses of language that depart from customary construction, order, or significance
9701 scheme an artful deviation from the ordinary arrangement of words. One of two general categories for figures of speech, along with trope.
9702 trope rhetorical device that produces a shift in the meaning of words– traditionally contrasted with a scheme
9703 denotation definitional, ‘literal’, ‘obvious’ or ‘commonsense’ meaning of a sign
9704 connotation socio-cultural and ‘personal’ associations (ideological, emotional etc.) of the sign
9705 emotive appealing to or expressing emotion (the emotive use of language)
9706 didactic 1: designed or intended to teach 2: intended to convey instruction and information as well as pleasure and entertainment 3: making moral observations
9707 index show something about things, on account of their being physically connected with them (Peirce)
9708 symbol a conventional sign, or one depending upon habit (Peirce)
9709 image vivid or graphic representation or description
9750 masked/false pronoun 0
9751 megaloprepeia 0
9752 sustentatio 0
9753 deinosis 0
9754 elaboration 0
9755 apamnemonysis 0
9756 compliment 0
9757 diabole 0
9758 diallage 0
9801 brachylogia nouns without conjunctions
9802 juxtaposition placing two or more things side by side
9803 hypozeuxis repetition of key verb or noun throughout series of clauses
9804 epanalepsis repetition at end of clause of word that occurred at beginning
9805 juxtaposition placing two or more things side by side
9806 onomatopoeia the use of words to imitate natural sounds; accommodation of sound to sense.
9807 perissologia extraneous clause added to sentence to supply grace. No new sense.
9808 syllepsis like zeugma but utility word grammatically agrees with only its nearest object and is used in two different senses
9809 ellipsis words left out of sentence, easily inferred
9810 antanaclasis word obtains two or more meanings when repeated calls attention to word’s origins or sound values
9811 juxtaposition placing two or more things side by side
9812 asteismus witty use of relation of words to each other and to reality. Purposeful misunderstanding. facetious or mocking…
9813 enigma riddle
9814 peristasis defines thing or person through circumstance
9815 syncrisis contrasts opposing persons / things in one statement
9816 taxis to divide a subject up into its various components or attributes. Expresses the most salient features of things
9817 antithesis juxtapose opposite ideas of similar grammatical constructions balance of tensions achieved
9818 epitrope speaker either ironically or sincerely gives up something an opponent wants
9819 inter se pugnantia scolding of opponent for lack of character or high-mindedness. usually couched in contradictory terms
9820 antanagoge contradiction by stating something negative then balancing it with something positive balance unfavourable aspect with favourable one
9821 auxesis gradual increase in intensity of meaning
9822 paradiegesis an introductory narrative (often a digression) used to open a speech.
9823 amphibologia ambiguity caused by either grammatical looseness or multiple meanings of words
9824 efficient cause agent and instrument linked through usage
9825 juxtaposition placing two or more things side by side
9826 antirrhesis reject evil authority
9827 epiphonema exclamation that summarises or concludes a discourse
9828 erotesis question boldly asserts opposite of what is asked
9829 apophasis hold back main reason or ironic denial
9830 apoplanesis completely evade issue or question
9831 diaeresis genus into species divide something of general nature into specific parts (has other meanings)
9832 digestion an orderly enumeration of points to be discussed
9833 enumeratio a synonym for anacephalaeosis. or Dividing a subject into its adjuncts, a cause into its effects, or an antecedent into its consequents. or A synonym for expeditio.
9834 metanoia qualifying a statement by recalling it and expressing it in a different way
9835 alloiosis breaking down subject into alternatives
9836 anthypophora arguing with self asking questions then answering
9837 anticategoria mutual accusation or recrimination
9838 antinomy comparing one law or part of to another
9839 contrarium one of two opposite statements used to prove the other
9840 dialysis first states major premise, then reasons, then conclusion.arguing from series of disjunctive propositions
9841 dilemma argument that offers opponent unacceptable choices
9842 progressio advancing by steps of comparison
9843 prosapodosis supporting each alternative with a reason
9844 sermocinatio speaker answers remarks or questions of a pretended interlocutor
9845 epitrochasmus swift movement from one statement to another
9846 fable fictional story meant to teach a moral lesson
9847 hypozeugma utility word of a sentence placed in last line or section
9848 mesozeugma key verb placed in middle of a sentence linking preceding and subsequent sentences
9849 oxymoron the apparent paradox achieved by the juxtaposed use of words which seem to contradict one another.
9850 proverb one of several terms describing short, pithy sayings. Others include adage, apothegm, gnome, maxim, paroemia, and sententia.
9851 prozeugma verb in one clause understood to apply in succeeding clauses
9852 zeugma one word applied to two or more words
9853 amphidiorthosis hedge charge made in anger by qualification
9854 anacoenosis seem to ask advice ask opinion of hearers or readers
9855 apodioxis reject opponent’s arguments as
9856 diasyrmus outright rejection by absurd comparison
9857 dicaeologia excuse showing absolute necessity
9858 emphasis stress of language in such a way as to imply more than is actually stated
9859 peroration impassioned summary
9860 analogy reason or argue from parallel cases
9861 euphemismus prophesies good fortune
9862 agnominatio repetition of a word with change in letter or sound
9863 auxesis gradual increase in intensity of meaning
9864 polysyndeton deliberate use of many conjunctions. Leads to slowing of rhythm.
9865 epistrophe repeat same word or phrase at end of clauses or sentences
9866 isocolon parallelism where similarity not only of structure but of length in words or even syllables
9867 emphasis stress of language in such a way as to imply more than is actually stated
9868 exuscitatio excites audience through tone either positively or negatively
9869 metastasis 1: passing over an issue quickly 2: turning back an insult or objection against the person who made it
9870 oraculum quoting God’s commandments
9871 periphrasis roundabout expression for single word or proper name
9872 philophronesis trying to mitigate anger by gentle speech and humble submission
9873 prolepsis applying now an attribute or epithet that will have relevancy later
9874 antimetabole repetition of words, in successive clauses, in reverse grammatical order
9875 antiphrasis ironic use of one word or phrase sigifying opposite of lexical meaning
9876 catachresis use of word from one dimension of meaning in another
9877 metaplasm moving letters or syllables from natural place generic term
10000 dissoi logoi arguing both sides of an issue for rhetorical training
10001 reductio ad absurdum mode of argumentation that seeks to establish a contention by deriving an absurdity from its denial
10002 adinventio prepared excuse to confront all objections
10003 Ante occupatio to anticipate and answer the possible objections to an argument
10004 Antirresis refutation
10005 Praeexpositio to compare what has been done with what ought to have been done
10006 Praeparatio to state why something will be said or done or has been done
10007 Praesumptio to anticipate objections to an argument
10008 Transmissio to turn an argument back on the acuser
10009 Dinumeratio to list and define the parts of one’s speech
10010 Partitio to divide a speech into its parts
10011 Collectio the expansion of a subject by conjecture
10012 Contrarium to construct a syllogism leaving out a premise
10014 Ratiocinatio to reason from cause to effect
10015 Alloeosis to change the mood or voice of a verb, the form of a conjunction or of a noun
10016 Allotheta to use one case for another
10017 Dissectio when a word is divided into two and one or more words are inserted between
10018 Eteroeosis to use a proper name or substantive as an adjective
10019 Inversio an exchange of syllables which corrupts the word
10020 Metaplasmos the alteration of a letter or syllable of a word
10022 Permutatio enallage. to exchange a verb for a noun, etc
10023 Scurra an obscene innuendo
10024 Traductio to repeat the stem of a word in many forms within one unit
10025 Adjunctio to complete several clauses with one verb
10026 Appositum to attached to each noun a suitable adjective
10027 Chiasmos chiasmus. to join the first thing to the fourth, the second to the third
10028 Compar when the parts of a phrase are balanced in quantity and quality of sound
10029 Compositio to squeeze two words together to achieve a metrical arrangement
10030 Comprehensio a close-packed group of words embracing a complete thought
10031 Conceptio to complete several clauses with one verb having different meanings
10032 Confusio confusion. when all the the parts are disarranged and confused
10033 Constructio to vary the syntax of expressions that admit of different constructions
10034 Disjunctio parallel sentences each with a nearly synonymous verb
10035 Endiadis to turn one word into two by putting something in the middle
10036 Incisum a brief and simple phrase with or without a verb
10037 Metabole to create clauses in which the word order is repeated
10038 Praeposteratio to give first place in a sentence to that which is chronologically second
10039 Reversio transposition. to transpose two words
10041 Series a series of phrases which are incomplete until the end of the sentence
10042 Similiter cadens clauses which end with words of similar cases
10043 Similiter desinens clauses which end with familiar sounding syllables
10045 Transgressio an effective change from normally correct word order
10048 Fabella fable. a witty imitation using animals or things
10049 Fabula a tale or myth with fantastic events involving gods or heros
10050 Flexus an involuted and prolix section of an historical narrative
10051 Recordatio a recital of past events recalled by the speaker
10053 Barbarismos incorrectness of grammar, word choice or spelling
10054 Bomphilogia bombast. small things described in big words
10055 Cacophonia cacophony. discordant sound
10056 Cumulatio indiscriminant use of words from different dialects or languages
10057 Humiliatio to use ill-selected words that diminish or debase
10058 Importunitas something said at the wrong time
10059 Improprietas a word the meaning or position of which is not appropriate to the subject
10060 Nugatio to carelessly repeat a word or phrase, or to define by repetition. tautology
10061 Redundantia an excess of words
10062 Solecismos solesism. misuse of grammatical rules; intrusion of poor grammar
10063 Turpiloquum possible obscenity through the way the words are arranged
10064 Acclamatio to exclaim or make a concise statement at the end
10065 Conclusio summation. to make a summing up
10066 Frequentatio to repeat concisely points made throughout
10067 Iteratio to repeat and sum up in a few words
10068 Judicatio an opinion or judgment to a saying from another author or on something one has said
10069 Percursio to summarize rapidly
10070 Permissio to refer a remainder to the judgment of a listener
10071 Praecisio to end suddenly
10072 Definitio to make the shortest correct exposition of the nature of anything
10073 Demonstratio to describe something vividly
10074 Locus to describe vividly a place
10075 Notatio to describe the personality and character of a person
10076 Praescriptio to describe facts and circumstances not necessary to the discourse, but relevant
10077 Tempus to describe the time of day or season
10078 Tractatio to describe in vivid visual terms
10079 Attributio to attribute the qualities of things or persons to other things or persons
10080 Castigatio to belittle something by unfavorable comparison
10081 Collatio to compare by showing the sequence of thought that led to the comparison
10082 Conformatio personification. to attribute speech and sense to things which do not normally have them
10083 Dissimilitudo to compare the different qualities of different things
10084 Distinctio to distinguish between two persons or things which are similar
10085 Emblem the visual part distinguishing a person or thing
10086 Imago to compare one form, figure, or attitude with another implying a resemblance
10089 Similitudo similitude. to discover similarities between two different things
10090 Translatio metaphor. to describe a thing as something to which it is being compared
10091 Commutatio to invert a sentence so that it becomes its own contrary
10092 Contrapositum to join contrary things as if they were similar
10093 Regressio to repeat and contrast things
10094 Boni ominis captatio to interpret an uncertain outcome as the better possibility; to call an uncertain thing a good one
10095 Conciliatio to express gently that which is unpleasant
10096 Dementiens hyperbole. to say more than the facts warrant; to exaggerate
10097 Error to deliberately introduce topics which lead the audience to error
10098 Extenuatio to diminish the subject by using a worse phrase for a bad thing, a low word for a noble thing, etc.
10099 Hendiades to join by conjunction rather than to subordinate
10100 Irrisio to savagely taunt with sweet words
10101 Intimitatio to imply something without saying it
10102 Invitio to imply something by not saying it
10103 Negando to use a word or phrase to imply the opposite meaning
10104 Subintellectio synecdoche. to imply the whole by the part, the genus by the species, or vice versa
10105 Urbanitas a sophisticated joke
10106 Illusio when the meaning is contrary to that suggested by the words
10107 Negatio a refusal to speak which nevertheless tells
10108 Nominatio onomatopoeia. to create or use a word that sounds like what it means
10109 Pronominatio to substitute a descriptive phrase for a proper name
10110 Prosopopocia personification. to give speech and sense to things which do not have it
10111 Proverbium proverb. a pithy saying
10112 Transmutatio metonymy. to substitute one name for another, the cause for the effect, the container for the thing contained; things associated
10113 Transumptio metalepsis. metaphor of a metaphor, or series of metaphors
10114 Allusio to alter a letter or syllable slightly to change the meaning of a word
10115 Ambiguitas when a word can be understood in two or more ways
10116 Interpretatio to express the same thing in different words
10117 Refractio to repeat a word but with a different meaning
10118 Submutatio to invert the words in a sentence in a ridiculous way
10119 Brachiepeia extreme brevity
10120 Familiaritas to take the discussion into terms of intimacy and familiarity
10121 Libera vox to pretend to speak freely by so doing encouraging belief
10122 Percontatio to inquire of others in order to set forth one’s own opinion
10123 Quaestium to question for emotional emphasis
10124 Rogatio to ask a question and add one’s own reply
10125 Defectio to omit the words expressing emotion
10126 Detractio to omit a word which can be understood from context
10127 Dissolutio to omit connecting particles between phrases
10128 Occupatio to tell something by pretending to omit it
10129 Attemporatio statements, general truths, etc. to confirm the truth of a proposition
10130 Circumductio prolixity. superfluous words into a speech
10131 Confessio confession. to admit to that of which one is accused
10132 Deprecatio entreaty. to confess and beg for compassion
10133 Gratiarum acto to thank for benefits received and admit inability to repay
10134 Improvisatio introduction of the unexpected
10135 Interjectio statement into another
10136 Necessitas to confess but maintain that the action was necessary
10137 Prohibitio to explain why something has not been done
10138 Prosodiasaphesis something small as an explanation
10139 Purgatio to excuse an admitted fault
10140 Tolerantio to give up all hope for something
10141 Transitio transition by repeating what has been said and introducing the next subject
10142 Amplificatio to use a greater word (or length of words) for a lesser thing or a lesser word (or shortness of statement) for a greater thing
10143 Diremens copulatio to state one exception and add another greater: not only …,but …
10144 Incrementio a series phrases each stronger than the last to make the subject seem more important
10145 Laudatio to praise something as worthy
10146 Incrementum to pile up material of increasing force in an orderly way to reach a climax, each word or phrase being stronger than the last
10147 Ordo to list with the most or least important first
10149 Accusatio to accuse someone to his face of something previously unknown
10150 Asseveratio to use strikingly appropriate epithets in general statements
10151 Certitudo to offer oneself as surety for one’s promise
10152 Constantia to promise constancy in the face of death, torture, etc, as if it were impossible to do otherwise
10153 Copulatio to state one exception and add another greater: not only …,but …
10154 Experientia to advise based on common experience
10155 Inopinatum to affirm a strange thing and express surprise at it
10157 Jusurandum to swear to something to confirm it
10158 Redditio to back up each statement with a reason
10159 Testatio testament. to affirm from one’s own experience
10160 Exaggeratio to use a single exaggerated word
10161 Rejectio to reject an accusation as unworthy of the accuser
10162 Conglobatio to say all the definitions of something at once
10163 Copulatio to reiterate a word with one or very few words between
10164 Heratio to repeat a word with different emphasis or significance
10165 Perseverantia the refrain. to repeat a phrase regularly
10166 Reduplicatio to repeat the last sound at the beginning of the next
10168 Regressio to repeat the same sound at the beginning and middle or the middle and end
10169 Resumptio to open and close a unit with the same sound
10170 Subjunctio to repeat a word or sound immediately without any interposition
10171 Admiratio to exclaim in wonder at something very good or bad
10172 Paeanismos to exclaim exultantly to express joy
10174 Benevolencia to attempt to obtain mercy by appeal for compassion from a stronger opponent
10175 Compensatio to join to unpleasant advice a promise for reward for following the advice or punishment if ignored
10176 Obsecratio to request or pray for help
10177 Promissio to promise of vow to obtain belief
10178 Querimonia to complain of something and seek help (from it)
10179 Reticentia to tell those who have no right to speak to shut up
10180 Testamentum to commend to the audience profitable rules and precepts
10182 Aversio to suddenly change from the third to second person
10183 Increpatio to turn an argument back forcefully on an opponent
10184 Imitatio to imitate not only in content but in pronunciation and gesture
10185 Parodia parody. a imaginary writing imitating a real one
10186 Elevatio to mock another’s statements
10187 Execratio to curse someone for things which cannot be proved
10188 Exprobatio to chastise for a proved crime
10189 Insultatio to deride the adversary
10191 Consolatio to attempt to diminish sorrow felt by the hearer
10192 Exclusio to dismiss a point which counts in the opponent’s favor
10193 Imaginatio to reveal a great mental change and move the audience to the same
10194 Lamentatio lamentation. to move the hearer to compassion
10196 Provocatio to remark or accuse to elicit a reply from the opponent
10197 Tolerantia to give up hope of something
10198 Dubitatio to express doubt about where to begin, what to talk about, or what word to use
10199 Reprehensio to qualify the meaning of a word, expressing doubt as to its correctness
10200 Dictu commoratio to recite a memorable saying (sentence) from another
10201 Proverbum proverb. a pithy saying
10202 Ignocentia to forgive those who have injured one

 

 

 

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